Pressure Vessel Overview, Pressure Vessels Codes and Standards

Pressure Vessels Overview

What Is Pressure Vessels: Pressure Vessel is Container designed to hold gaseous or liquids at pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.

Classification or Types Pressure Vessels:

  • According to Fabrication
      1. Shop Fabricated Pressure Vessels
      2. Field Fabricated Pressure vessels
      3. Riveted Pressure Vessels
      4. Welded Pressure vessels
      5. Forged Pressure Vessels
      6. Cast Pressure Vessels
      7. Multi layered Pressure Vessel
  • According to Functions
      1. Reactor
      2. Accumulator
      3. Columns
      4. Drums
      5.  
  • According to Material of Constructions
      1. Steel Pressure Vessels
      2. Cast iron pressure Vessels
      3. Aluminium Pressure Vessels
  • According to Pressure
      1. Internal Pressure
      2. External Pressure
  • According to Method of Heating
      1. Fired Pressure Vessels
      2. Unfired Pressure Vessels
  • According to Geometry
      1. Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
      2. Spherical Pressure Vessels
      3. Conical Pressure Vessels
  • According to Orientation
      1. Horizontal Pressure Vessels
      2. Vertical  Pressure Vessels
      3. Inclined Pressure Vessels
  • According to Installations
      1. Fixed Pressure Vessels
      2. Portable Pressure Vessels
  • According to Wall Thickness
      1. Thin Walled Pressure Vessels
      2. Thick walled Pressure Vessels

Pressure Vessels Parts :

  • Vessel Body – Cylindrical or Spherical Shell
  • Vessels Heads – Flat, Tori, Elliptical, Hemi Heads.
  • Vessel Supports – Leg , Lug, Skirt, Saddle Supports.
  • Vessel Nozzles ØVessels Man ways

Pressure Vessels Codes & Standards:

What is Mean by Codes : Codes is nothing but set of Rules for the Design, Fabrication, installation, Inspection, and Testing of Industrial Process Plants and Equipment’s.

What is Mean by Standards  : It Consist of group of Rules Prepared by Professional People for the Design, Manufacturing and Pressure Integrity of the Components.

 Principles of Pressure Vessel Codes:

  • Safety – Pressure Vessel design , Fabricated, Installed and Inspected should be safe.
  • Constructability – Pressure Vessels Design and Fabrication Should be Constructible.
  • Operability – Pressure Vessel Design and Constructed Should also be operable.
  • Maintainability – Pressure Vessel Design, Constructed and Operated Should also be maintainable.
  • Economy – Pressure vessel Design, Construction, Operation, Maintain Should also be economical.
COUNTRY ORGANISATION ABBREVIATION CODES
USA American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME ASME VIII
INDIA Bureau of Indian Standards BIS or IS IS 2825
CANADA Canadian Standard Association CSA CSA B51
EUROPE Committee of European Normalisation EN or CEN EN 13445
BRETAIN British Standard Institute BS or BSI BS 5500
GERMANY Deustche Institute of Normalising DIN AD 2000
JAPAN Japanese Industrial Standardisation Committee JISC or JIS JIS B 8243
WORLD Organisation for Industrial Standards ISO ISO 16528

ASME Codes and Standards For Pressure Vessels :

ASME SECTION VIII – For Pressure Vessels

This Section Provides all Rules and requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels. It has following Divisions.

  • Division – 1
  • Division – 2
  • Division – 3

Pressure Vessel Code is revised and updated after interval of every three years  and Addenda published annually.

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 1

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig but less than 600 psig.

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 2

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 600 psig but less than 10000 psig.

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 1

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 10000 psig.

ASME SECTION II – For Materials

  This Section Provides all details for Materials.

  1. Part A – Ferrous Material Specifications.
  2. Part B – Nonferrous Material Specifications.
  3. Part C – Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals.
  4. Part D – Properties.

ASME SECTION V – For Non-Destructive Testing :

This section describes for Requirements and methods for nondestructive examination which are referenced and required by other code Sections. It also includes manufacturer’s examination responsibilities, duties of authorized inspectors and requirements for qualification of personnel, inspection and examination.

For example – DPT, RT, UT, MPT.

ASME SECTION IX – For Welding Qualifications:

This section provides Rules relating to the qualification of welding and brazing procedures as required by other Code Sections for component manufacture. It also Covers rules are related to the qualification and re-qualification of welders and welding and brazing operators in order that they may perform welding or brazing as required by other Code Sections in the manufacture of components.

AWS – American Welding Society – For Welding

  This Code is used for Welding Process, Welding Material, Welding Consumables and other Welding data.

API – American Petroleum Institute  – Storage Tanks

  This Code is used for Storage Tank Fabrication

  • API 620
  • API 650

Piping Codes

  • ASME B 31.1 – Power Piping
  • ASME B 31.2 – Fuel Gas Piping
  • ASME B 31.3 – Process Piping
  • ASME B 31.4 – Liquid Piping
  • ASME B 31.5 – Refrigeration Piping
  • ASME B 31.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping

Pipe Standards

  • ASME B 36.19 – Stainless Pipes
  • ASME B 36.10 – Carbon Steel and Alloy Pipes

Fittings Standards

  • ASME B 16.10 – For SW and Screwed Fittings
  • ASME B 16.9 – For BW Fittings

Flanges Standards

  • ASME B 16.1 – Cast Iron Flanges
  • ASME B 16.5 – Forged Steel Flanges
  • ASME B 16.47 – Forged Steel Flanges for Big Bore Size

Flanges Standards

  • ASME B 16.1 – Cast Iron Flanges
  • ASME B 16.5 – Forged Steel Flanges
  • ASME B 16.47 – Forged Steel Flanges for Big Bore Size

Valves Standards

  • ASME B 16.34 For Valves
  • ASME B 16.10 Face to Face Dimensions

Gaskets Standards

  • ASME B 16.20 Metallic Gaskets
  • ASME B 16.21 Non Metallic Gaskets

Pickling Specification

  • SSPC – SP – 8 – 63

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 1

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig but less than 600 psig.

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 2

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 600 psig but less than 10000 psig.

ASME SECTION VIII – Division – 1

  This Division Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 10000 psig.

ASME SECTION II – For Materials

  This Section Provides all details for Materials.

  1. Part A – Ferrous Material Specifications.
  2. Part B – Nonferrous Material Specifications.
  3. Part C – Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals.
  4. Part D – Properties.

ASME SECTION V – For Non-Destructive Testing :

This section describes for Requirements and methods for nondestructive examination which are referenced and required by other code Sections. It also includes manufacturer’s examination responsibilities, duties of authorized inspectors and requirements for qualification of personnel, inspection and examination.

For example – DPT, RT, UT, MPT.

ASME SECTION IX – For Welding Qualifications:

This section provides Rules relating to the qualification of welding and brazing procedures as required by other Code Sections for component manufacture. It also Covers rules are related to the qualification and re-qualification of welders and welding and brazing operators in order that they may perform welding or brazing as required by other Code Sections in the manufacture of components.

AWS – American Welding Society – For Welding

  This Code is used for Welding Process, Welding Material, Welding Consumables and other Welding data.

API – American Petroleum Institute  – Storage Tanks

  This Code is used for Storage Tank Fabrication

  • API 620
  • API 650

Piping Codes

  • ASME B 31.1 – Power Piping
  • ASME B 31.2 – Fuel Gas Piping
  • ASME B 31.3 – Process Piping
  • ASME B 31.4 – Liquid Piping
  • ASME B 31.5 – Refrigeration Piping
  • ASME B 31.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping

Pipe Standards

  • ASME B 36.19 – Stainless Pipes
  • ASME B 36.10 – Carbon Steel and Alloy Pipes

Fittings Standards

  • ASME B 16.10 – For SW and Screwed Fittings
  • ASME B 16.9 – For BW Fittings

Flanges Standards

  • ASME B 16.1 – Cast Iron Flanges
  • ASME B 16.5 – Forged Steel Flanges
  • ASME B 16.47 – Forged Steel Flanges for Big Bore Size

Flanges Standards

  • ASME B 16.1 – Cast Iron Flanges
  • ASME B 16.5 – Forged Steel Flanges
  • ASME B 16.47 – Forged Steel Flanges for Big Bore Size

Valves Standards

  • ASME B 16.34 For Valves
  • ASME B 16.10 Face to Face Dimensions

Gaskets Standards

  • ASME B 16.20 Metallic Gaskets
  • ASME B 16.21 Non Metallic Gaskets

Pickling Specification

  • SSPC – SP – 8 – 63

Imran Pinjara

Author of Book " Master in Fabrication Layout Development " Published worldwide. Founder and CEO of Let'sFab Educational Services. More than 8 Years of Professional Experience in Field of Pressure Vessel, Heat Ex changer, Storage Tanks, Piping and other Process Equipment Fabrication Industry. He had worked in many Fabrication Industry from small workshop to MNC Company. He had Completed PGDM in Process Piping Design and Engineering as per ASME B31.3 and Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering.

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